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Zenone di Elea - Agosto 2021

The Family of Cavour PAGE 1
Its early connection with Imperialism in Italy 1
Birth of Camillo di Cavour 1
His education and ambitions 2
Founds the Risorgimento; its programme 2
Enters the Piedmontese Parliament; state of politics in Piedmont at the time 3
The Siccardi laws; conflict between Church and State 3 4
Cavour Prime Minister 5
Suppression of Convents and Monasteries in Piedmont 5
Italian policy of Napoleon III 6 7
The Crimean War, Piedmont joins the Allies 8
The Piedmontese at the Tchernaya 9
Cavour at the Congress of Paris 9 10
The Italian Question before the Congress 11 12
Baron Hubner’s reply to Clarendon and Walewski 13 14
Cavour’s negotiations with Clarendon 16 17
He arranges with Napoleon III for joint action 18 19
Cavour’s report to the Turin Parliament 20
Interpreted by the press as a declaration of war against the Holy See 21
Report of M de Rayneval to Walewski on the condition of the Papal States 21 27
Progress of Pius IX through his States in 1857 Cavour’s preparations for war against Austria
Armaments and conspiracies 27 28
The Sapri expedition 28
Denounced by Cavour as an outrage against the Law of Nations 29
His words a condemnation of his own subsequent enterprise 30
The Orsini Plot 30
Cavour and Napoleon III at Plombieres 30
Europe on the eve of war, yet confident in the preservation of peace 31
Napoleon’s words to the Austrian ambassador at the New Year’s reception of 1859 PAGE 32
Marriage of Prince Napoleon and the PrincessClotilde 33
Niel inspects the fortresses of Piedmont 33
Austria strengthens her Italian garrisons; agitation at Milan 33
French and Piedmontese preparations for war 33
Lanza proposes a war loan in the Turin Parliament 33 34
Criticism of Cavour’s policy by the opposition 34 35
A Savoyard deputy predicts the cession of Savoy 35 36
Cavour defends his policy 36 37
The loan authorized 38
Opening of the French chambers, the Emperor’s speech 38 39
The pamphlet, Napoleon III et PItalie 39 40
The English Government asks Piedmont what are her complaints against Austria; Cavour’s reply 40 41
Memorandum in reply from Austria 41 43
Reassuring article in the Afonlteur Russia proposes a Congress 43
Austria accepts the proposal on condition of previous disarmament by Sardinia
Cavour is alarmed; he goes to Paris 44
Austria and England propose a general disarmament 44
Garibaldi given the command of the Cacciatori degli Alpt 45
Austria resolves to demand the disbandment of the free corps 45 46
Ultimatum from Austria sent to Turin 46
The French troops put in motion to enter Italy 47
Declaration of war 48
Lord Malmesbury rejects the French invitation to England to enter upon the war as the ally of France 48 49
The Austrian commander and his plan of campaign 50 51
His forces 51
Position and plans of the Sardinians 51
The Austrians cross the Ticino; their slow advance into Piec mont 52
Retreat of the Austrians; attitude of the peasantry 52 53
Concentration of the allied armies 54
Gyulai makes a reconnaissance in force against their right; battle of Montebello 55 56
The French concentration completed; positions of the opposing forces; plans of Napoleon 56 58
Flank movement of the French, masked by an advance of the Piedmontese 58
The two days’ fighting at Palestro 59 61
The Austrians discover the flank march of the French; hesitating action of Gyulai; he resolves to fight on the Ticino 61 62
MacMahon’s victory at Turbigo 63
Interference with Gyulai’s plans from Vienna 63 64
Battle of Magenta; map and description of the ground 64
Position of the opposing armies on the morning of June 4th, 1859 65
Beginning of the battle 66
The French advance checked 67
The French are reinforced and resume their advance 68
MacMahon to the rescue 69
Storming of Magenta, and retreat of the Austrian army 69 70
Condition of the French on the morrow of their victory 71
Operations of the Garibaldians 71 72
MacMahon enters Milan 72
Continued retreat of the Austrians and advance of the French 73
Bazaine’s victory at Malegnano 73 74
The Austrians concentrate in the hill country behind the Chiese 75
Description of the district 75
The Austrian Emperor takes the command; his forces 76
The French and Sardinian armies 76 77
Hess persuades the Austrians to retire across the Mincio; the Allies cross the Chiese 77
The Austrians change their plans and recross the Mincio 78
The French advance next day (June 24th) unexpectedly leads to a great battle 79
Beginning of the Battle of Solferino 80
Map of the battle-field 81
First successes of the French 82
Attack on the village of Solferino 83
Success of Benedek against the Piedmontese on the Austrian right 84
MacMahon takes Cavriana and breaks the Austrian centre 85
Sudden storm, retreat of the Austrians 8q
Complete failure of the Piedmontese; they occupy San Martino on the retirement of the Austrians 85 96
Agitation in the Duchies 87
A provisional government at Carrara 87 88
Revolution at Florence; Piedmont’s share in effecting it 88 89
Prince Napoleon with a French army occupies Tuscany; scheme for securing him an Italian principality 89
His threatening movements against the Austrian garrisons in the Papal States 90
They suddenly evacuate Ancona and Bologna 91
Revolution at Parma 91
Revolution at Bologna 91
Volunteers from Tuscany enter Umbria and seize Perugia 92
Colonel Schmidt with a column of Pontifical troops advances 92
Perugia 92
Efforts at negotiation 93
Storming of Perugia 94 95
False charges against the Pontifical army 96
Success of the revolution in Central Italy 96 97
Panic in the French camp the day after Solferino 98
Siege of Peschiera, and projected attack on Venice 99
Position of the opposing forces at the end of June; danger of the war extending 99
Negotiations opened with the Austrian headquarters; peace of Villafranca 100 101
Projects for the reorganization of Italy 102
Agitation against the Treaty of Villafranca; Cavour resigns office 103
Treaty of Zurich 104
Failure of the French plans in Tuscany; double dealing of Napoleon III 104
The Roman Question; protests of the bishops 106
The Romagna annexed by Piedmont; the Piedmontese ambassador sent away from Rome 106
Murder of Count Arviti at Parma 106 107
The proposed Congress on the Affairs of Italy accepted by the Pope 107
Pamphlets on the Roman Question: About’s La Question Romaine; Napoleon’s Le Pape et le Congres 107 108
Antonelli refuses to go to the Congress unless the latter pamphlet is officially disavowed 109
Napoleon urges Pius IX to cede the Romagna to Piedmont 108
The Pope’s reply: “Non possumus” 110
Encyclical of January 19th, i860, embodies this reply 110 111
The Univers suppressed for reprinting it 111
Cavour returns to office 111
Cession of Savoy and Nice the price of the Emperor’s acquiescence in Cavour’s new plans 112
The treaty signed, “ Now we are accomplices” 112
The annexation of Savoy and Nice; the plebiscite; how plebiscites are managed 114 116
Plebiscites in the Duchies and the Romagna 117
Excommunication of all who had a share in the annexation of the Legations 117
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 118 119
Agitation in Sicily 120
The Garibaldian expedition embarked near Genoa 120 121
Action of Cavour 121
His orders to Admiral Persano 122
Garibaldi anchors at Talamone and receives supplies from the Piedmontese garrison 123
His lieutenant, Zambianchi, makes a raid into Pontifical territory 124
He fails to excite an insurrection and is defeated by the Pontifical troops under De Pimodan 125
Voyage of the Garibaldians to Sicily 125
The landing at Marsala; conduct of Captain Marryat 126 127
Battle of Calatafami; success of the Garibaldians 128 129
The Piedmontese Government officially disavows Garibaldi, but Persano’s squadron is ordered to assist him 130
Garibaldi, Dictator of Sicily 130
He advances on Palermo 131
Action at Parco, flank march of Garibaldi 132
He attacks Palermo 133
The city bombarded 134
Intervention of Admiral Mundy 135
Fighting resumed at Palermo; spread of the insurrection through out Sicily 136
Armistice renewed; the treasury handed over to Garibaldi 138
Massacres of the police by the insurgents 139
Persano’s action in favour of the Garibaldians J39
He brings his fleet to Palermo 140
The Neapolitan troops evacuate the city 140
Persano tries to win over the Neapolitan navy to the revolution 141
Arrival of the second Garibaldian expedition under Medici 141
It lands under the escort of Persano’s ships 142
State of Sicily 143 144
Persano escorts a third Garibaldian expedition under Cosenz to Palermo 145
Garibaldi expels Cavour’s agent, La Farina, from Sicily 145
A Neapolitan corvette offers to join Persano’s squadron; he advises the commander to simply put himself under Garibaldi’s orders 146
Cavour’s warning to Persano; his precautions against the
Republican plans of the dictator 147
Map of the district of Milazzo 148
Battle of Milazzo 149 153
Persano at Milazzo 153
Messina the only Sicilian fortress held by the Neapolitans 153 154
Count Litta’s mission to Garibaldi 154
Convention for the evacuation of Messina, with the exception of the citadel 155
Garibaldi master of Sicily; Cavour sends him permission to invade the mainland 155, 156
The Sardinian Embassy at Naples is made a centre of conspiracy 157
Treason of Liborio Romano, the Neapolitan Minister of the Interior 158
Persano’s squadron conveys arms to Naples 158
Persano’s efforts to get up an insurrection at Naples 159 161
Remarkable letter from Cavour 161
Conspiracy to bring over the Neapolitan fleet; failure to capture the frigate Monarca at Castellamare 161 162
Cavour prevents a premature raid upon the Papal States 162
First attempt of the Garibaldians to cross the strait of Messina ends in failure 162 163
Second attempt successful 163 164
Capture of Reggio 164
Treason of the Neapolitan General Bnganti; he is shot by his soldiers 165
Collusion between the Neapolitan officers and Garibaldi; disorganization of the Neapolitan troops; the surrender at Soveria 165 167
The plot at Naples; treachery of the Count of Syracuse 167 168
Persano completely fails to get up a revolution in the capital 169
Garibaldi advances on Naples; Cavour tells Persano that as he has failed to anticipate him, he must co-operate with him 170
Cavour sends the admiral the programme of the attack on the Papal States 170 171
Persano submits his plans to Cavour 171 172
Report that the Neapolitan fleet is about to put to sea; Persano’s trick to keep it in port 172 173
An English envoy to the revolutionists at Naples 173 174
Garibaldi arrives at Salerno; he is invited to enter Naples by Liborio Romano, 175
King Francis resolves to leave Naples 175
His farewell proclamation 176 178
He sails for Gaeta 178
Garibaldi enters Naples 179
Attitude of the people 179 180
The Neapolitan squadron incorporated in Persano’s fleet 179
Curious conference on board the English flagship Hannibal 179
Persano sails for Ancona 179
The military position in Southern Italy 180
Pius IX appeals for aid to the Catholic world 181
General La Moriciere takes command of the Pontifical army 182
His proclamation to his soldiers 182 183
Position assumed by the Holy See; dispatch of Antonelli 183 184
The Pontifical army chiefly composed of Native troops 185
Cavour’s plans for the invasion of the Pontifical territory 185 186
Cialdini’s mission to the French Emperor; the meeting at Chambery* 186
Significant proclamation of General de Nouf, commanding the French garrison at Rome 187
Armed bands under Masi enter Pontifical territory; this invasion described by Cavour’s agents as an insurrection 187
Summons to La Moriciere by General Fanti 187
Indignant reply of the French general 188
Strength and positions of the army under La Moriciere 188
Ultimatum sent to Rome by Cavour 189
Fanti at the head of the Royal army crosses the Pontifical frontier, without waiting for a reply, and without a declaration of war 189
Protests of the Powers 190
Proclamations of Fanti and Cialdini 190
Plans of the opposing generals 191
Capture of Pesaro 191
Gallant action of Kanzler at San Angelo 191
Fanti takes Perugia I92
Brignone attacks Spoleto, defended by O’Reilly 193
Gallant defence of the place 193
The Piedmontese repeatedly repulsed 194
O’Reilly surrenders only when the place has become untenable 195
The campaign in the Marches of Ancona 195
False report of French intervention on behalf of the Holy See Siege of Ancona 196 197
State of the defences 198
Approach of Persano’s fleet 198
He reconnoitres the seaward forts under English colours: collusion of the British consul 198 199
Persano’s conference with Cialdini 199
Approach of the Pontifical army under La Moriciere 199
Occupation of Loreto by the Pontifical troops 200
Death of Mizael de Pas 200
Preparations for the battle; arrival of Pimodan’s column 200
Battle of Castelfidardo 201
Fight at the Crocetti; Pimodan mortally wounded 202
Desperate defence of the Crocetti by the Pontifical troops 203
End of the battle; the Pontifical troops driven back upon Loreto 204
La Moriciere resolves to push on to Ancona with his escort 205
Capitulation of the Pontifical troops at Loreto 206
Cialdini’s report of the battle 207 208
Treatment of the prisoners; the Irish at Genoa 209
The wounded 209 210
Bombardment of Ancona by the fleet 210
La Moriciere reaches Ancona 212
Arrival of a few other soldiers escaped from Loreto 212
Renewal of the bombardment 213
Attempt to assassinate La Moriciere 214
Failure of Persano to force his way into the harbour 214
Fighting on the land side; the defence made good against the Piedmontese 214 215
The fleet attacks the battery on the Mole 215
Heroic defence of the fort 216
Persano forces the harbour mouth; surrender of the city 217
Although the white flag is flying, Fanti and Cialdini continue the bombardment 217
Persano protests against this atrocity 217
The bombardment on the land side continues even after Persano has occupied the town 218
La Moriciere’s retirement, and death 218
Plebiscite in Umbria and the Marches 219
Victor Emmanuel’s proclamation to the people of Southern Italy 220
The military position in the South 221
Beginning of the reaction against the Garibaldians 221
Rout of the Garibaldians at Capua 221 222
They occupy Cajazzo 222
Cajazzo recaptured by King Francis 222
Defective generalship of Garibaldi; he resolves to await the arrival of the Piedmontese before undertaking further operations 223
Battle of the Volturno 223 221
Conduct of English blue-jackets on the battle-field 225
Victory of Garibaldi 226
Victor Emmanuel takes command of the army 226
Cavour informs the Neapolitan ambassador at Turin of the coming invasion of the Kingdom of Naples by Victor Emmanuel 227
Plan of the invasion 227
Successes of the Neapolitan Royalists in the Abruzzi 228
First battle of Isernia 228
Second battle of Isernia 229
Action at Sezza 229
Meeting of Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi 230
Plebiscite at Naples; wretched state of the provinces 230 231
Proclamation of Prince Murat 231
Cialdini repulsed on the Garigliano 232
The French fleet at Gaeta 232
Cialdini forces the line of the Garigliano 232
Surrender of Capua 233
Victor Emmanuel at Naples 233
His contempt for the Garibaldians 233 234
His reception by the people of Naples 234
Garibaldi’s farewell to his army 234 235
Siege of Gaeta 235 237
The reaction in the Neapolitan provinces 237
Proclamation of King Francis from Gaeta 237 239
Attempted counter-revolution at Naples 239 240
Risings in Calabria and the Abruzzi 240
General Pinelli’s sanguinary attempts at repression 241
His failure at Civitella del Tronto 241
His infamous proclamations 242 243
Enterprise of De Christen 243
His plans 244
Failure to obtain proper support from Gaeta 245
Operations on the northern frontier of the Neapolitan kingdom 246
Sack of the Abbey of Casamari 247
Battle of Bauco 247
Convention between De Christen and General de Sonnaz 248
The French fleet withdrawn from Gaeta 249
The fortress bombarded by land and sea 250
Explosion of the great magazine 250 251
Surrender of Gaeta 252
Departure of King Francis 253
Siege and capture of the citadel of Messina 253 254
Surrender of Civitella del Tronto
Meeting of the first Italian Parliament at Turin 255
Gradual recognition of the new kingdom by foreign Powers 256
Feeling in England against the Pope and the King of Naples 257
Mr Gladstone’s pamphlet on the Neapolitan prisons 257
Influence of the Italian exiles in England 258
Real state of the Neapolitan kingdom 258
Action of English diplomatic agents in Italy 259
Admiral Mundy and Garibaldi 259 260
Attacks of the Times on the Pontifical army 260 261
A Garibaldian legion organized in England with the connivance of the Government 261 264
The Garibaldians openly assemble at Shoreditch station, and embark without any attempt at concealment 264
The voyage to Italy 265
Refusal of the Government to put the Foreign Enlistment Act in operation 265
Lord John Russell’s despatches an elaborate defence of Cavour’s policy 296 270
Results of the policy of Cavour 271 272
La Marmora’s journey to Berlin in 1861; the prospect of a Prussian alliance 273
Efforts to obtain the withdrawal of the French from Rome, 273 274
The Turin Parliament declares Rome the capital of Italy 275
Cavour’s speech on the Roman Question 275 279
Garibaldi’s hostility to Cavour 279
He attacks him in the Parliament 280 281
Cavour’s reply 281 282
Ricasoli attacks Garibaldi 283
Cialdini’s quarrel with Garibaldi 283
Illness and death of Cavour 283 284
Ricasoli succeeds him as minister 284
Understanding between Ricasoli and the French Emperor 284
Fruitless negotiations of Ricasoli with the Emperor and the Pontifical Government with a view to obtaining a footing in Rome 285 289
Agitation against his Government on the failure of the negotiations 289
He resigns office (March 1st, 1862) 290
The beginnings of the reaction in the Neapolitan provinces 291
History of the civil war in the South necessarily a fragmentary one 292
Nature of the conflict 293
The rebels described as “brigands” 293
Evidence that this was a misapplication of the term 294
The reaction not confined to the Abruzzi 295
Striking testimony of D’Azeglio 295 296
Enterprise of General Borjes 296 297
He is captured and executed at Tagliacozzo 298 299
Sanguinary methods of repression adopted by Cialdini and his lieutenants; specimens of their proclamations; reign terror in the South 299 305
Statistics of destruction of towns in the South by the Royal troops 305
Statistics of destruction of life 306
The prisons of Naples under Italian rule 307
Evidence of Lord Henry Lennox on the overcrowded state of the prisons 308 316
Suppression of newspapers 316
Dissensions among the insurgent chiefs; surrender of Tnstany 317
End of the armed insurrection in the summer of 1864 317
Protests of Italian deputies and Garibaldians against the cruel methods used to repress it 318 319
Protest of Napoleon III 319
Rattazzi succeeds Ricasoli as prime minister
His policy 320
Garibaldi and the rifle clubs; affair of Sarnico; Garibaldians assembled for a raid into Venetia 321
Ratazzi stops the movement 322
Debate at Turin on the affair of Sarnico 323
Garibaldi goes to Sicily and announces an expedition against Rome 323
He assembles volunteers at Corleone 324
Proclamation of King Victor Emmanuel against the Garibaldian enterprise 325
Piedmontese troops violate the Roman frontier at Ceprano; they are repulsed by the Pontifical Zouaves; prompt action of the French army of occupation 325
Progress of the Garibaldian army through Sicily 325 327
Garibaldi occupies Catania 327
Manifesto of Garibaldi 328 329
He embarks with his volunteers for the mainland 329
He lands at Melito, and marches to Aspromonte 330
Dangers of Garibaldi’s position; operations of the Royal troops Cialdini’s orders 330 441
Pallavicini attacks the Garibaldians at Aspromonte 331
Garibaldi wounded and taken prisoner 332
Excitement in Italy; Mazzini declares all truce with the Government at an end, and calls for a Republic 333 334
Ratazzi tries to temporize 334
Amnesty to the Garibaldians 335
Ratazzi attempts to obtain a promise that the French will evacuate Rome 335
Peremptory refusal of the Emperor’s Government to promise anything 335
Debate in the Turin Parliament, and resignation of the Ratazzi ministry 336
Farini forms a new cabinet 336
He soon retires through ill-health; Ministry of Minghetti 336
The Italian exiles in London and the Greco conspiracy 337 338
Garibaldi visits England, 338
His meeting with Mazzini at the house of Herzen 339
Compact between the two revolutionary leaders 339
Plans of Garibaldi against Rome and Venice temporarily abandoned at the request of Cairoli and Bixio, acting as envoys from Victor Emmanuel 340
Negotiations between the Minghetti Cabinet and the French Government for the evacuation of Rome 341
The Convention of September 15th, 1864 342
Secret protocol attached to the Convention, for the fixing of the Italian capital in some other city than Rome 343
The negotiations concealed both from the Pope and the Italian people 343
Meeting of the Parliament at Turin; proposed transfer of the capital to Florence 344
Excitement at Turin; the troops fire on the people 344 345
Anger against the Government; the king dismisses the Minghetti Cabinet 345
New ministry formed by General La Marmora 346
His policy of an alliance with Prussia 347
First steps towards the alliance 347
Attempts, on the suggestion of France, to obtain a cession of Venetia by purchase from Austria 348
General Govone sent to Berlin to negotiate with Bismarck 349
Bismarck’s account of his plans 350 352
He tries to commit Italy to a war against Austria without pledging anything in return 353
La Marmora insists on a treaty of alliance; the treaty is drawn up 354 355
Blindness of the French Emperor; he is consulted, but makes no objection to the projected alliance 355
The treaty signed 356
Bismarck’s efforts to obtain a casus belli 357 358
Alarm of La Marmora on finding that at Berlin the treaty is not regarded as reciprocally binding 359
Mobilization of the Prussian army 359
Proposals for a congress; preparations for war 360
Outbreak of war in Germany 360
Italy declares war against Austria 361
Principle of Italian finance: “No use being economical wht one has nothing to begin with” 362
Cost of wars revolutions and armaments 362
Growth of the Italian debt 363
Permanent deficit 364
Heavy taxation 365
The army used to enforce payment of taxes 366
State of the finances in 1865 367
Scialoja becomes La Marmora’s Finance Minister, and pr0poses to meet the deficit by the confiscation of Church property 367 368
Conflict between the new Italy and the Church 369 370
Suppression of monasteries in the Kingdom of Sardinia 370 371
Extension of the Piedmontese law of suppression to the newly annexed provinces in 1859 and 1860 371
Imprisonment of bishops 371 372
Various minor persecutions of bishops and priests 372 373
Breaking-up of diocesan seminaries 374
Ecclesiastics made liable to military service 374 375
Project for complete suppression of religious orders 376
Petitions against it 377
Enactment and execution of the proposed law 378 379
Summary of the methods of warfare against the Church adopted by the Italian Government 380
Plans of Italy for the war of 1866 381
La Marmora's plan for the invasion of Venetia 382
Forces under his command 383
Inferior forces of the Austrians 384
La Marmora enters Venetia 384
The Archduke Albert suddenly occupies the line of the Somma Campagna 385
Ill-directed advance of La Marmora: his vanguard surprised by the Austrians 386
Battle of Costozza 3S6 389
Retreat of the Italians 389
Losses on both sides in the battle 389
Complete collapse of the Italian plans 390
Austrian projects against Southern Italy 391
Battle of Sadowa; cession of Venetia to France 391
Garibaldi's failure in the Tyrol 392
Austrians withdraw from Venetia; invasion of the province by Cialdini 392
Medici in the Tyrol 392 393
Persano’s fleet sails for Lissa 393
Failure of the first attack on the forts 394
Failure of a second attack 395
Approach of the Austrian fleet under Tegethofif 396
Comparison of the opposing forces 397 398
Battle of Lissa 398
Sinking of the Re d’Italia 399
Crisis of the battle 400
The Palestro blown up 401
Victory of the Austrians; the Italian fleet retires to Ancona 401
The Emperor Maximilian and Tegethoff 402
Persano sends false reports of a victory 402
Indignation in Italy on the truth becoming known; Persano dismissed from the navy 403
Sinking of the Affondatore at Ancona 403
The Venetian plebiscite 403
State of Sicily 404 405
Anarchy and discontent 406 407
Suppression of the Sicilian monasteries 408
Republican agitation at Palermo 409
Topography of Palermo 409 410
Beginning of the revolt 411
First successes of the rebels 412 413
Arrival of the fleet; bombardment ol the revolted quarter of the city 414
The garrison reinforcedz defeat of the rebels 415 416
Unfounded charge against the monks 417
End of the insurrection 418
Withdrawal of the French troops from Rome 419
The Pontifical army 419 420
The Roman Revolutionary Committee 420
Ratazzi succeeds Ricasoli as prime minister 421
The centenary of St Peter 421
The cholera at Albano 421
Affair of the Legion d’Antibes 421
Organization of the Ganbaldzan campaign against the Pontifical States 422
Proved complicity of the Ratazzi Cabinet 422
Although it publicly disavows the movement 422 423
Plan of the campaign 423
Garibaldi arrested on the demand of the French Government, but soon released and sent to Caprera 424
The Government supplies funds for the movement 424
The first Garibaldian bands cross the frontier 424
Forces and distribution of the Pontifical army under Kanzler 425 426
The first skirmishes 426 427
Victory of the Zouaves at Bagnorea 427
Charette on the frontier 428
Action at Monte Libretti 428 431
Retreat of the Garibaldians; Charette occupies the town 431
The Romans take no part in the Garibaldian movement 432
How the Garibaldians were recruited and supplied 432
Victory of Charette at Nerola 433 434
The revolutionary leaders press Ratazzi to send them Garibaldi 434
Hesitating action of Napoleon III 435
Ratazzi allows Garibaldi to escape from Caprera and join his army 436
Attempted Garibaldian insurrection at Rome 436
The Serristori barracks blown up 437 438
Failure of the insurrection; attempt of the brothers Cairoli 438
They are defeated and killed at Monte Pairoli 439
Capture of the Garibaldian headquarters in the Trastevere 440
Resignation of Ratazzi on the news of the failure at Rome; Menabrea forms a ministry 440
Proclamation by Victor Emmanuel 441
Garibaldi advances against Monte Rotondo 442 443
He captures the place after a hard fight 443 444
He advances towards Rome 444
The French land at Civita Vecchia 444
The Italian troops cross the Pontifical frontier 444
Kanzler arranges to attack the Garibaldians 445
March of the Pontifical army to Mentana 445 447
Position and forces of the Garibaldians 447 448
Battle of Mentana 449
Capture of the Vigna Santucci 45o
The French brigade comes into action 450
Attack on the village of Mentana 452
The night after the battle 452 453
Surrender of the Garibaldian garrison of Mentana 453
Re-occupation of Monte Rotondo 454
Return of the Pontifical army to Rome; Pius IX and the Garibaldian prisoners 454
The Italian troops retire across their own frontier 455
Circular of Menabrea 455 456
The Roman Question before the French Chamber; M Rouher’s speech 456 458
Documents relating to the connection of the Ratazzi Cabinet with the Garibaldian invasion of the Papal States in 1867 458 463
Altered position of affairs after the failure of the Garibaldian attempt of 1867 464
Policy of the Government at Florence 465
Assembly of the Vatican Council 465
The Florentine Government prevents a Garibaldian raid on the Papal States in the spring of 1870 465
Pursuit of a Garibaldian band by the Pontifical troops 465
Garibaldian conspiracy in the summer of 1870 466
War between France and Prussia 467
Efforts of Napoleon to obtain the alliance of Italy; he resolves to evacuate Rome 467
Protests and comments of the press 467 468
Details of the evacuation 468 470
Conduct of the Italian Government 470 471
French defeats; Italy negotiates with Prussia to secure a free hand 471
Garibaldian agitation in Italy 472
The Roman Question in the Italian Parliament 473
Visconti Venosta states the policy of the Government 473
He solemnly declares that an attack upon the Pontifical territory would be a violation of treaties and of the Law of Nations 474
Agitation against the Government; it prepares to violate its public pledges 475
State of Rome 475 476
Programme of the revolution 476 477
Circular of Visconti Venosta on the Roman Question 478 479
News of Sedan; second circular of Visconti Venosta, announcing action at an early date 480
The Cabinet decides on the invasion of the Papal States 481
Pius IX consults the Cardinals as to the course to be adopted 482
Letter of Victor Emmanuel to Pius IX 483
Count Ponza di San Martino sent to Rome with an ultimatum 483
Reply of Cardinal Antonelli 484
Text of Victor Emmanuel’s letter to the Pope 484 486
The Pope’s conversation with Count Ponza di San Martino 486 487
Arrival of Canadian volunteers for the Papal Zouaves 487
Letter of the Pope to King Victor Emmanuel 488
The Pope and the Roman people 488
Invasion of the Papal territory without a declaration of war 490
Forces under the command of Cadorna 490 491
Forces under Kanzler’s command for the defence 491 492
Distribution of the Pontifical army 492
The Italian army crosses the frontier in five columns 492
Advance of Bixio; he attempts to cut off Charette from Rome 492 493
Skilful retreat of Charette 493 494
Civita Vecchia besieged by Bixio’s army and the Italian fleet 494 495
A council of war decides to surrender the place 496
Movements of Angioletti’s division 497
Attitude of the people; loyalty of the native Pontifical troops 498
Advance of the main army under Cadorna 499 500
Capture of Civita Casteliana 501 504
State of affairs in Rome 504 505
Reconnaissance by the Zouaves at San Onofrio 506 507
Arrangements for the defence of Rome 507 508
Movements of Cadorna 508 509
Kanzler’s reply to his summons 509
Second summons to Kanzler 510
Arnim the Prussian ambassador to the Vatican goes to Cadorna’s headquarters 510 511
Deserters from Cadorna's army come into Rome 511
The eve of the attack 512 513
Beginning of the bombardment 514
Attack on the Tre Archi 515
The Porta San Giovanni defended by Charette and Daudier 515
Bixio’s attack on the Trastevere, which is successfully defended by native Roman troops 516 517
Cadorna’s attack on the Porta Pia 517
The wall breached 519
Order to hoist the white flag received from the Pontifical head-quarters 519
Attack on the breach and the gate 520
The white flag hoisted by the defence but not respected by the attack 521
Bixio continues the bombardment of the Trastevere after the surrender 522
The Italian troops enter Rome: the Pontifical troops retiring on the Leonine city and San Angelo 522 523
The so-called “ Roman exiles’’ 523 524
Losses of both sides in the attack and defence of Rome 5 24 525
Italian tributes to the bravery of the Papal troops 525 526
Calumnies and blunders of the Times 526 527
The Zouaves in the army of the Loire 527
Scenes at the Vatican on September 20th 528 529
The Papal army spends the night on the Piazza of St Peter’s 530
Its farewell to Pius IX 531
The march out of Rome 532
Treatment of the Pontifical army in Italy 532
The flag of the Zouaves 533
Fate of the garrison of Bagnorea 533
The Italian soldiers of the Pontifical army 533
The squadriglieri imprisoned in defiance of the capitulation 534
State of Rome; occupation of the Leonine city 534
The provisional government organizes the plebiscite 535 536
The voting and the result 537 538
Worthless character of the vote 538 539
Protest of an Italian statesman 539 541
Position of Pius IX 542
Policy of the new rulers of Rome 543
Demonstrations of loyalty to the Holy See by the Catholic world 543
Death of Victor Emmanuel 544
Death of Pius IX 544 545
Accession of Leo XIII 546
Disappointing results of the unification of Italy 544 546
Debt and oppressive taxation 546 548
Moral deterioration 548
Testimonies of friends of the Italian movement 549
Federalism a better policy than Unionism 549 55o
Examples of Germany, Switzerland, America 550
Federalism the probable key to the solution of the Italian Question 550
The future of the Holy See 551 552




















Nicola Zitara mi chiese diverse volte di cercare un testo di Samir Amin in cui is parlava di lui - l'ho sempre cercato ma non non sono mai riuscito a trovarlo in rete. Poi un giorno, per caso, mi imbattei in questo documento della https://www.persee.fr/ e mi resi conto che era sicuramente quello che mi era stato chiesto. Peccato, Nicola ne sarebbe stato molto felice. Lo passai ad alcuni amici, ora metto il link permanente sulle pagine del sito eleaml.org - Buona lettura!

Le développement inégal et la question nationale (Samir Amin)

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Ai sensi della legge n.62 del 7 marzo 2001 il presente sito non costituisce testata giornalistica.
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